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??????????: 37 ° 46'45 .48 "N 122 ° 25'9 .12" W / 37,7793 ° ?.?. 122,4192 ° W / 37,7793; -122,4192 ?????????? : 37 ° 46'45 .48 "N 122 ° 25'9 .12" W / 37,7793 ° ?.?. 122,4192 ° W / 37,7793; -122,4192
?????? ??????????? ?????
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?????????? 29 ???? 1776
???????????? 16 ?????? 1850 [8]
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- ????? ? ????? 231,89 ?????????? ???? (600,6 ?? 2)
- ????? 46,87 ?????????? ???? (121,4 ?? 2)
- ???? 185,02 ?????????? ???? (479,2 ?? 2) 79,79%
- ????? 3,524.4 ?? ???? (9,128.2 ?? 2)
?????? 52 ????? (16 ?)
?????????? ?????? 925 ????? (282 ?)
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????????? (2010) [9] [10] CSA : 7468390
- ????? ? ????? 805235
- ????????? 17,179.2 / ?? ???? (6,632.9 / ?? 2)
- ????????? 3273190
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??? - ????????? (?????????? ????????????: / ? ? æ ? F R ?n ? ? ? ? o? / ), ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ???-?????????, ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???-????????? , ??????? 7,15 ???????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ? ???-???? ? ?????? . [11] ?????? ????????????????? ?????-???????? ? ??????????, [12], ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? 46,9 ?????????? ???? (121 ?? 2) [13] ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???-????????? , ?????? ??? ????????? ????? 17179 ??????? ?? ?????????? ???? (6632 ??????? ?? ?? 2). ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? (? ?????????? ?????? 200 000) ? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???-????? . [14] ???-????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ? 13-? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????, ? ?????????? 805 235 ?? ????????? ?? ???????? 2010 ???? . [15]

? 1776 ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????. [16] ?????????? ??????? ????????? 1849 ???? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ?? 1000 ?? 25000, [17] ?, ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ? ?? ?????. ????? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? 1906 ? ????? , [18] ???-????????? ??? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ??????-?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????. ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? , ???-????????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????? . [19] ????? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ??????????????, ???????? ??????????, ????????????? ????????, ? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ???? ????? ? ????? ???? ????????, ?????????????? ???-?????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? .

???????, ???-????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????, [20], ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ????, ?????? ?????, ??????????? ????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? , ? ??? ?????????? ??????????????????????, ? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? , ???????? ????? ? ????????? ??. ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ? ????? ??? ????? ??? 30 ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????, [21], ??????? ??????? ???-????????? ???? ????????????? ? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????? , ??????? ? ??????????? ??????, ? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????.

??????????

[ ????????????? ] ???????

?????? ???-?????????-??-???? (Mission Dolores)

????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???-????????? ???? ?? 3000 ?. ?? ?. [22] Yelamu ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????, ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? 2 ?????? 1769, ??????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???-????????? . [23] ???? ??? ??????, 28 ????? 1776 ????, ????????? ??????? Presidio ???-????????? , ? ????? ?????? , ?????? ???-????????? ?? ???? (Mission Dolores ).

????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ? 1821 ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? . ? ???????????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??? ????? ????? ??????????????? . ? 1835 ???? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, [24] ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????, ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? . ?????? ? Alcalde ?????????-??-??? , ?? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ?????, ????????? ? Yerba Buena , ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????. ???????? ???? ?. ????? ?????????, ?????????? ??? 7 ???? 1846 ?., ?? ????? ?????????-???????????? ????? , ? ??????? ???? ?. ?????????? ?????? ????????? Yerba Buena ????? ??? ???. Yerba Buena ???? ????????????? ? ???-????????? 30 ?????? ?????????? ????, [25] ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ????? . ???????? ?? ??????????????? ?????, ??? ???? ? ??????-??????? ???? ? ???-?????????, ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?????????. [26]

???????? ??????? ? 1851 ????

?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????. ? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ???????, [27] ??????????, ??????????? ? ???-????????? ??? ?????????? Benicia , [28] ????????? ????????? ? 1000 ? 1848 ???? ?? 25000 ? ??????? 1849 ????. [17] ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ??????, ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ? ?????? ???-?????????. [29] ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????????????? , ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????-????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? - ?????????. ?????????? ????????, ? ??? ????? Comstock Lode ? 1859 ????, ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????????. [30] ? ???? ????????? ?? ??????????, ???????????? ????? ?????, ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????, ? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????, ???????????, ? ???????? ????. [31]

??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????. ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ????????? Wells Fargo ? 1852 ???? ? ???? ?????????? ? 1864 ????. ???????? ????? ???-????????? ? ???????? ? 1869 ???? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????????? Pacific Railroad (????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? [32] ) ??????? ??????? ? Bay Area ????? ??? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????? ?????????, ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????. ????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????, ? ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????. ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???-????????? ?? ???? ????? ? 1873 ????. ???? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????? ????????????, ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????, ? ?????????? ???? ????? Golden Gate Park . ??? - ???????????? ????????? ?????, ??????, ??????, ? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????. Presidio ??????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????. [33] ? ?????? ?????? ????, ???-????????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????, ??????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????. [34]

"?? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????. ???-????????? ?????? ???". - ???? ?????? ????? ????????????? 1906 ? ???? [35]

? 5:12 ???? 18 ?????? 1906 ????, ???????? ????????????? ? ???-????????? ? ???????? ??????????. ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????, ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???????????????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ??-??? ???????? ?? ????????? ????. ? ??????????? ?? ????????????, Presidio ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????. [36] ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????, ? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ????. [18 ] ??????????? ?????? ???????, ??? 498 ??????? ???????? ???? ?????, ???? ??????????? ???????, ????? ? ????????? ?????. [37] ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? 400 ????? ???????? ??? ?????. [38] ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????? ???? Presidio, ?? ?????? ? ?????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? East Bay .

?????????????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ????. ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????, ???-????????? ?????? ????????. [39] ?????? ???????? '? ????? ?????? , ??????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? , ??? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???, ??? ????? ???? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????-??????. ????? ????? ?????? ? splendorous ??????? ???????? ?????, ? ????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????-?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ? 1915 ????. [40]

? ??????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ? ?????????? ????? 1929 ???? ???????? ????? ., ?? ???? ?? ???-????????? ???? ?? [41] ?????????????, ??? ???? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? , ??? ???- ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ???-????????? - ?????? Bay Bridge ? ???? ??????? ?????? , ???????? ?? ? 1936 ? 1937 ????? ??????????????. ?????? ? ???? ??????, ??? ?????? ????????? , ?????? ??????? ????????, ????? ???? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ??? ??? ?????? , ? ?????? ???????? ?????? , Birdman ??????????. ??? - ????????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? , ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? 1939-40 ?????, ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ????????.

?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ????? ??????-??????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????????, ? Fort Mason ???? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? . [19] ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??? , ? ???? ??????. ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ???, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????. ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????? ? ???????? ? ???-????????? ? 1945 ????, ? ? 1951 ????, ??????? ? ???-????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? .

USS San Francisco ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ? 1942 ????, ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????.

????????????????? ???????? ? 1950-? ? 1960-? ????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????. [42] Transamerica ???????? ???? ????????? ? 1972 ???? [43] ? ? 1980-? ????? Manhattanization ???-????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????. [44] ???? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? , ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ? ??????????????, ? ???-????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????. ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????, ? ???-????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ? ????????? ???????. [45] [46] ?? ???? ??????, ???-????????? ???? ???????? ??? ????????????? ???????. ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???-?????????, ?????????? ? ????????????? ?? North Beach ?????? ? 1950-?. [47] ????? ????????? ? ????-?????? ? 1960-? ?????, ????????? ????????? ? 1967 ???? ????? . [ 48] ? 1970 ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? , ? ?????????? ?????? , ??? ????????? ??? ??????? , ?????? ????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????? , ? ??? ???????? , ? ?????, ??? ???? ??????? Moscone , ? 1978 ????. [49]

1989 ???? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????? ?? ???? Bay Area. ? ???-????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????????? Embarcadero ????? ? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? , ??? ????????? ??????, ????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????.

?? ????? ???-??? ???? ????? 1990-?, ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????, ? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?? ????????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ?????-?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? gentrified . ????? ?????? ?????? ? 2001 ????, ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????, ? ?? ?????????? ????????, ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ???-?????????. [50]

[ ????????????? ] ?????????

???-????????? ???????????

??? - ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???-????????? ? ???????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ???-????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????. ????????? ???????? - ????????? , ?????? ???????? , ? ??????????? ? ???? ??????? Yerba Buena , ? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? , ??????? ???-?????? , ? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????. ????? ????, ???????? ??????????? ??????? Farallon , 27 ???? (43 ??) ?? ?????? ? ????? ?????. ??????? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? "???? ?? ????-?????????? ????", ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????, ???? ??? ????? ???????, ??????? ????, ????? ? 232 ?????????? ???? (600 ?? 2).

?????????? ????????? ???????-????? , ????? ?????????? ??????? ???? .

??? - ????????? ???????? ????? ?????? . ???? ????? ??? ?? 50 ?????? ? ????? ??????. [51] ????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ?????, ?? ??????? ??? ???????????, ? ??? ????? ??? ???? , ??????? ????? , ? ???????? ???? . ????? ? ?????????????? ????? ??????, ???-?????? ?? ?????? ??????, ????????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??????. ???? ???? , ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??????, ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????. ??????? ???? ??? - ?????????, ?????-???????? , ?????????? 925 ????? (282 ?) ? ?????? ? ??????????? ? 103 ????? (31 ?) ? ?????? ????? ???????? ? 1934 ????. [52] ???????????? ???? ??????? Sutro ????? , ??????? ??????? ? ????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?????.

?????????? ???-??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????. San Andreas ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ? 1906 ? 1989 ?????. ????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????. ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????. [53] ??? ?? ?????, ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????. [54]

??? - ????????? ????????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???????????? ???????. ????? ??????, ????? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ????? , ? ????? ??????? ????? Embarcadero , ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? . ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????, ???????????? ?? ?????, ? ????? ????????, ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????? Yerba Buena ??????? ?? ????? ????????????? ???? ??????. ????? ?????, ??? ???????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?????????????; ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???, ??? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????????? 1989 ???? ?????? . [55]

[ ????????????? ] ??????

????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???-????????? ?????.

?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ????? ???? "???????? ?????? ? ?????-???? ???????? ???? ????? ? ???-?????????." [56] [57] ?????? ? ???-????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????????? ?????? [58] ?? ????????? ??????????, " ??? ???????, ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ????? ?????. " [59] ??? ??? ?? ??????? ? ???? ?????? ?????, ?????? ? ???-????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????.

????? ??????? ??????? ???, ???-????????? ???????? ??????????????, ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ????, ???? ? ??????. [60] ?????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? . [61] ????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ? ????? ???? ? ?????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ????? ????.

??-?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????, ???-????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? . ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ?? 20% ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????. ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ????????, ? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? , ? ??? ???, ??? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????, ???-????????? ???????? ?????????, ? ??????? ?? 260 ????? ????, ? ?????? 105 ????????? ???? ? ????.

??????????? ???? 75 ° F (24 ° C) ? ??????? ?????? 28 ???? ? ????. [62] ????? ?????? ? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ??????, ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????? 64-71 ° F (18-22 ° ?) ? ??????? 51-56 ° F (11-13 ° ?). ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ? ??????? ???????????? 58-64 ° F (14-18 ° C) ? ??????? 46-51 ° F (8-11 ° ?). ? ???????, ???? 67 ????????? ???? ? ???, ? ????????????? ?????? 20,4 ????? (518,16 ??). [62] ???? ??????????? ?????, ? ?????? 10 ??????????? ?????????? ? 1852 ????, ????????? ??? ? 1976 ????. [63]

????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ???? 103 ° F (39 ° C) 17 ???? 1988 ????, ? 14 ???? 2000 ????. ????? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???? 27 ° F (?? -3 ° ?) ?? 11 ??????? 1932 ????. [64]

????????????? ?????? ? ???-????????? (????? ??????)
????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???
???????? ??????? ° F (° C) 79
(26.1)
81
(27.2)
86
(30)
94
(34.4)
101
(38.3)
103
(39.4)
103
(39.4)
98
(36.7)
101
(38.3)
102
(38.9)
86
(30)
76
(24.4)
103
(39.4)
??????? ??????? ° F (° C) 58,1
(14.5)
61,4
(16.33)
62,5
(16.94)
64,5
(18.06)
65,4
(18.56)
67,7
(19.83)
68,2
(20.11)
69,2
(20.67)
71,3
(21.83)
70,4
(21.33)
64,1
(17.83)
58,6
(14.78)
65,1
(18.39)
??????? ?????? ° F (° C) 46,4
(8)
48,5
(9.17)
49,2
(9.56)
50,1
(10.06)
51,4
(10.78)
53,2
(11.78)
54,4
(12.44)
55,6
(13.11)
56,1
(13.39)
54,6
(12.56)
50,8
(10.44)
46,7
(8.17)
51,4
(10.78)
???????? ?????? ° F (° C) 30
(-1.1)
31
(-0.6)
35
(1.7)
40
(4.4)
43
(6.1)
46
(7.8)
47
(8.3)
48
(8.9)
48
(8.9)
43
(6.1)
38
(3.3)
27
(-2.8)
27
(-2.8)
??????? ?????? (??) 4,72
(119.9)
4,15
(105.4)
3,40
(86.4)
1,25
(31.8)
0,54
(13.7)
0,13
(3.3)
0,04
(1)
0,09
(2.3)
0,28
(7.1)
1,19
(30.2)
3,31
(84.1)
3,18
(80.8)
22,28
(565.9)
??. ????????? ???? (? 0,01 ?) 11,4 10,8 11,2 6,2 3,3 1,4 0,4 0,9 2,1 4,1 8,7 9,6 70,1
????????? ???? 185,9 207,7 269,1 309,3 325,1 311,4 313,3 287,4 271,4 247,1 173,4 160,6 3,061.7
???????? ???. 1: NOAA (???????? 1971-2000) [65] [66]
???????? ???. 2: WRCC (????????? 1914 ?? ????????? ?????) [67]

[ ????????????? ] Cityscape

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??? - ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????.

???????????? ????? ???-????????? ?? ??????-??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????-????? ? ????? ???????????. ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????, ? ?????-????? , ??????? ???????? ????? ? ?????, ?????. ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? , ?????-?? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????, ? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? , ????????????? ???? ? ???????? Dungeness ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????. ????? ? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? , ????? ????? ? ????????? ?????? Lombard Street , North Beach , ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ???? , ??????? ???????? ????? ???? . ?????????? ????????? ? ???-????????? ?????????? ???????? , ????????? ? 1840 ????. [68] [69] [70] [71]

?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ? 19-? ???? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????, ????????, ?????? ? ???????????. ? 1910-? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????, ? ? 1950-? ?????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????????. [72] ? ????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????????, ? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????-?????, ??????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???-????????. ????-?????? , ???????? ????????? ? 1960-? ????? ????? ????????, ????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? [73] ? ????????? ??????? ?????????, [74] , ???? ??? ??-???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????. ??????????? ????????? ??? Eureka ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ? ??????. [75]

?????? Japantown ?????? ?????????, ????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? . ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????, ? ?? ?? ?????. " Painted ???? ", ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? , ?????? ????? ? ????? ??????? , ? ????????? ????????? ??????-????? ???-????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? 1906 ????? ????? ? Pacific Heights . ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????. [76]

??????? , ??????????? ???????? ??????? Golden Gate Park, ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????, ????? ?????????? "????? ????????? ???????", ?? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ?????? . ? ??? ?? Golden Gate Park ????? ????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????. [77] ??????? ? ????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ?, ??????, ???????? ??? ?????????? . ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ???????: ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ??????. ??????-??????? ????? ? ???-????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????????, ???? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? .

? ??? ?? ????? , ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???-?????????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????. ????? ???-??? ???? ? ????? 1990-?, ? 2004 ?. ? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????? (??. Manhattanization ). ????? ?????? ??????????? South Beach , ?????? ?????, Mission Bay , ????????? ?????????????, ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ???-????????? . ?????? ???-?????? ?? Mission Bay ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???-?????????.

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????????? ?? ?????? ???-????????? ? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?????? , ???? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? 13 ????????? ??????????? ? ???. ????? ?????????????????????? GGNRA ? ???????? ?????? Ocean Beach , ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ? ?????? ???? , ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ????? Presidio , ?????? ??????? ????. ????? ? Presidio ???????? ?????? ???? , ?????? ????????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? . GGNRA ????? ????????? ???? ??????? , Lands End , Fort Mason , ? ????????? . ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???-????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? - ???? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?? ???? ???????? .

???? ????? ??? 200 ?????? ??????? ???-????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????. [78], ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ????????? ???? Golden Gate Park , [79] , ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??????. ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ????, ???? ??? ??????? ? 1860 ???? ? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????. ??????? ???? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????????????, ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????? , ???????? ??? ??? ? ???-?????????, ???????????? ??? . ????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???-????????? ??????? , ????????????? ?????? ????, ??????? ???? ????? 250 ????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????. [80] ?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???? , ????????????? ? ???????? ? ???-?????????, ?????????? ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????. [81]

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? ????????? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ??- ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? , ? ????? ?? ????????? Dot-Com ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ???-?????????, ????????? ???????? ? ???-????????? ?? ???? ????. [82] ?????? ??????, ??????? ???? ?????-?? ????? ?????????? , ??????? ? ?????? ????? ??? gentrifying , ??? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? Embarcadero , ? ??? ????? ?????? South Beach ? Mission Bay . ????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ??????, [83] [84] [85] ???????? ???????, ? ?????????????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????. According to a 2008 quality of life survey of global cities, San Francisco has the second highest quality of living of any US city. [ 86 ] Due to the exceptionally high cost of living, many of the city's middle and lower class families have been leaving the city for the outer suburbs of the Bay Area, or for California's Central Valley . [ 87 ]

Boutiques along Fillmore Street in Pacific Heights

Although the centralized commerce and shopping districts of the Financial District and the area around Union Square are well-known around the world, San Francisco is also characterized by its culturally rich streetscapes featuring mixed-use neighborhoods anchored around central commercial corridors to which residents and visitors alike can walk. Because of these characteristics, San Francisco was rated "most walkable" city by the website Walkscore.com. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many visitors and tourists. Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafes and nightlife such as Union Street in Cow Hollow , and 24th Street in Noe Valley . Others are less so, such as Irving Street in the Sunset , or Mission Street in the Mission . This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences. [ 90 ]

The rainbow flag , symbol of LGBT pride, originated in San Francisco; banners like this one decorate streets in The Castro .

The international character San Francisco has fostered since its founding is continued today by large numbers of immigrants from Asia and Latin America. With 39% of its residents born overseas, [ 91 ] San Francisco has numerous neighborhoods filled with businesses and civic institutions catering to new arrivals. In particular, the arrival of many ethnic Chinese, which accelerated beginning in the 1970s, has complemented the long-established community historically based in Chinatown throughout the city and has transformed the annual Chinese New Year Parade into the largest event of its kind outside China. [ 92 ]

Following the arrival of the "beat" writers and artists of the 1950s, to the societal changes that culminated with the Summer of Love in the Haight-Ashbury district during the 1960s, San Francisco became an epicenter of liberal activism, with Democrats and Greens dominating city politics . San Francisco has not voted more than 20% for a Republican presidential or senatorial candidate since 1988 . [ 93 ] In 2007, the city expanded its Medicaid and other indigent medical programs into the " Healthy San Francisco " program, [ 94 ] which subsidizes certain medical services for eligible residents. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] [ 97 ]

The city's large gay population has created and sustained a politically and culturally active community over many decades, developing a powerful presence in San Francisco's civic life. One of the most popular destinations for gay tourists internationally, the city hosts San Francisco Pride , one of the largest and oldest pride parades .

[ edit ] Entertainment and performing arts

The lobby of the War Memorial Opera House , one of the last buildings erected in Beaux Arts style in the United States

San Francisco's War Memorial and Performing Arts Center hosts some of the most enduring performing-arts companies in the US The War Memorial Opera House houses the San Francisco Opera , the second-largest opera company in North America [ 98 ] as well as the San Francisco Ballet , while the San Francisco Symphony plays in Davies Symphony Hall . The Herbst Theatre stages an eclectic mix of music performances, as well as public radio 's City Arts & Lectures .

The Fillmore is a music venue located in the Western Addition . It is the second incarnation of the historic venue that gained fame in the 1960s under concert promoter Bill Graham , housing the stage where now-famous musicians such as the Grateful Dead , Janis Joplin , Led Zeppelin and Jefferson Airplane first performed, fostering the San Francisco Sound . Beach Blanket Babylon is a zany musical revue and a civic institution that has performed to sold-out crowds in North Beach since 1974.

The American Conservatory Theater (ACT) has been a force in Bay Area performing arts since its arrival in San Francisco in 1967, regularly staging productions. San Francisco frequently hosts national touring productions of Broadway theatre shows in a number of vintage 1920s-era venues in the Theater District including the Curran , Orpheum , and Golden Gate Theatres.

The red brick and central circular structure of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art as seen from Yerba Buena Gardens . The Art Deco -style PacBell Building (1925) rises behind the museum.

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The Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) houses 20th century and contemporary works of art. It moved to its current building in the South of Market neighborhood in 1995 and now attracts more than 600,000 visitors annually. [ 99 ] The Palace of the Legion of Honor holds primarily European antiquities and works of art at its Lincoln Park building modeled after its Parisian namesake . It is administered by Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco , which also operates the de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park. The de Young's collection features American decorative pieces and anthropological holdings from Africa, Oceania and the Americas. Prior to construction of its current copper-clad structure, completed in 2005, the de Young also housed the Asian Art Museum , which, with artifacts from over 6,000 years of history across Asia, moved into the former public library next to Civic Center in 2003.

Opposite the Music Concourse from the de Young stands the California Academy of Sciences , a natural history museum that also hosts the Morrison Planetarium and Steinhart Aquarium . Its current structure, featuring a living roof , is an example of sustainable architecture and opened in 2008. The Palace of Fine Arts , built originally for the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition , has since 1969 housed the Exploratorium , an interactive science museum.

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The major daily newspaper in San Francisco is the San Francisco Chronicle , which is currently Northern California's most widely circulated newspaper. [ 100 ] The Chronicle is most famous for a former columnist, the late Herb Caen , whose daily musings attracted critical acclaim and represented the "voice of San Francisco". The San Francisco Examiner , once the cornerstone of William Randolph Hearst 's media empire and the home of Ambrose Bierce , declined in circulation over the years and now takes the form of a free daily tabloid. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] Sing Tao Daily claims to be the largest of several Chinese language dailies that serve the Bay Area. [ 103 ] Alternative weekly newspapers include the San Francisco Bay Guardian and SF Weekly . San Francisco Magazine and 7x7 are major glossy magazines about San Francisco. The national newsmagazine Mother Jones is also based in San Francisco.

The San Francisco Bay Area is the sixth-largest TV market [ 104 ] and the fourth-largest radio market [ 105 ] in the US The city's oldest radio station, KCBS (AM) , began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909. KALW was the city's first FM radio station when it signed on the air in 1941. All major US television networks have affiliates serving the region, with most of them based in the city. There also are several unaffiliated stations, and BBC , CNN and ESPN have regional news bureaus in San Francisco. The city's first television station was KPIX , which began broadcasting in 1948.

Public broadcasting outlets include both a television station and a radio station , both broadcasting under the call letters KQED from a facility near the Potrero Hill neighborhood. KQED-FM is the most-listened-to National Public Radio affiliate in the country. [ 106 ] San Francisco–based CNET and Salon.com pioneered the use of the Internet as a media outlet.

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The San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League (NFL) are the longest-tenured major professional sports franchise in the city. The team began play in 1946 as an All-America Football Conference (AAFC) league charter member, moved to the NFL in 1950 and into Candlestick Park in 1971. The 49ers won five Super Bowl titles in the 1980s and 1990s behind coaches Bill Walsh and George Seifert , and stars such as Joe Montana , Steve Young , Ronnie Lott , and Jerry Rice .

A Muni light rail vehicle passes AT&T Park , home of the San Francisco Giants .

Major League Baseball 's San Francisco Giants left New York for California prior to the 1958 season. Though boasting such stars as Willie Mays , Willie McCovey and Barry Bonds , the club went 52 years until its first World Series title in 2010 . The Oakland Athletics had swept the Giants in the 1989 World Series , after Game 3 in San Francisco was infamously pre-empted by the Loma Prieta earthquake . The Giants play at AT&T Park , which opened in 2000, a cornerstone project of the South Beach and Mission Bay redevelopment. [ 107 ]

At the collegiate level, the Dons of the University of San Francisco compete in NCAA Division I , where Bill Russell guided the program to basketball championships in 1955 and 1956. The San Francisco State Gators and the Academy of Art University Urban Knights compete in Division II . AT&T Park has since 2002 hosted an annual post-season college football bowl game , currently named the Kraft Fight Hunger Bowl .

The Bay to Breakers footrace, held annually since 1912, is best known for colorful costumes and a celebratory community spirit. [ 108 ] The San Francisco Marathon attracts more than 21,000 participants. [ 109 ] The Escape from Alcatraz triathlon has, since 1980, attracted 2,000 top professional and amateur triathletes for its annual race. [ 110 ] The Olympic Club , founded in 1860, is the oldest athletic club in the United States. Its private golf course, situated on the border with Daly City , has hosted the US Open on four occasions, and will host it a fifth time in 2012. The public Harding Park Golf Course is an occasional stop on the PGA Tour . San Francisco will host the 2013 America's Cup yacht racing competition. [ 111 ]

With an ideal climate for outdoor activities, San Francisco has ample resources and opportunities for amateur and participatory sports and recreation. There are more than 200 miles (320 km) of bicycle paths, lanes and bike routes in the city, [ 112 ] and the Embarcadero and Marina Green are favored sites for skateboarding . Extensive public tennis facilities are available in Golden Gate Park and Dolores Park , as well as at smaller neighborhood courts throughout the city. Boating, sailing, windsurfing and kitesurfing are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the Marina District . San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the US [ 113 ]

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Alcatraz receives 1.5 million visitors per year. [ 114 ]

Tourism is the backbone of the San Francisco economy. Its frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. It is the city where Tony Bennett "left his heart ," where the Birdman of Alcatraz spent many of his final years, and where Rice-a-Roni [ 115 ] was said to be the favorite treat. San Francisco attracts the third-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the US [ dated info ] [ 20 ] and claims Pier 39 near Fisherman's Wharf as the third-most popular tourist attraction in the nation. [ 116 ] More than 16 million visitors arrived in San Francisco in 2007, injecting nearly $8.2 billion into the economy—both all-time high figures for the city. [ 117 ] With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the Moscone Center , San Francisco is also among the top-ten North American destinations for conventions and conferences. [ 118 ]

The legacy of the California Gold Rush turned San Francisco into the principal banking and finance center of the West Coast in the early twentieth century. Montgomery Street in the Financial District became known as the "Wall Street of the West," home to the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco , the Wells Fargo corporate headquarters, and the site of the now-defunct Pacific Coast Stock Exchange . Bank of America , a pioneer in making banking services accessible to the middle class, was founded in San Francisco and in the 1960s, built the landmark modern skyscraper at 555 California Street for its corporate headquarters. Many large financial institutions, multinational banks and venture capital firms are based in or have regional headquarters in the city. With over 30 international financial institutions, [ 21 ] seven Fortune 500 companies, [ 119 ] and a large support infrastructure of professional services—including law, public relations, architecture and design—also with significant presence in the city, San Francisco is designated as one of the ten Beta World Cities . [ 120 ] The city ranks eighteenth in the world's list of cities by GDP , ninth in the United States, and is fifteenth place in the top twenty Global Financial Centres Index . [ 121 ] [ 122 ]

The San Francisco Financial District skyline framed by the Transamerica Pyramid and the Bank of America building .

San Francisco's economy has increasingly become tied to that of its Bay Area neighbor San Jose and Silicon Valley to its south, sharing the need for highly educated workers with specialized skills. [ 123 ] Due to such links with Silicon Valley, San Francisco became an epicenter of the Dot-Com bubble of the 1990s–2000s, and the subsequent Web 2.0 boom of the late 2000s. Many popular and prominent Dot-Com companies and " start-ups " such as Craigslist.org , Twitter, Salesforce.com , and the Wikimedia Foundation among others have established their head offices in San Francisco.

San Francisco has been positioning itself as a biotechnology and biomedical hub and research center. The Mission Bay neighborhood, site of a second campus of UCSF , fosters a budding industry and serves as headquarters of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine , the public agency funding stem cell research programs statewide. As of 2009, there were 1,800 full-time biochemists and biophysicists employed in San Francisco, with an annual mean wage of $92,620. [ 124 ]

Small businesses with fewer than 10 employees and self-employed firms make up 85% of city establishments as lately, it has been particularly popular with entrepreneurs establishing "start-up" companies. [ 125 ] The number of San Franciscans employed by firms of more than 1,000 employees has fallen by half since 1977. [ 91 ] The successful penetration of national big box and formula retail chains into the city has been made intentionally difficult by political and civic consensus. In an effort to buoy small privately owned businesses in San Francisco and preserve the unique retail personality of the city, the Small Business Commission supports a publicity campaign to keep a larger share of retail dollars in the local economy, [ 126 ] and the Board of Supervisors has used the planning code to limit the neighborhoods in which formula retail establishments can set up shop, [ 127 ] an effort affirmed by San Francisco voters. [ 128 ]

The top employer in the city is the city government itself, employing 6.25% of the city's population, followed by University of California, San Francisco . Third, at 2.04%, is Wells Fargo , the largest private-sector employer. [ 129 ]

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San Francisco—officially known as the City and County of San Francisco—is a consolidated city-county , a status it has held since 1856. [ 130 ] It is the only such consolidation in California. [ 12 ] The mayor is also the county executive, and the county Board of Supervisors acts as the city council . Under the city charter, the government of San Francisco is constituted of two co-equal branches. The executive branch is headed by the mayor and includes other citywide elected and appointed officials as well as the civil service. The 11-member Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch, is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets, though San Franciscans also make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation.

The members of the Board of Supervisors are elected as representatives of specific districts within the city. [ 131 ] Upon the death or resignation of mayor, the President of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board elects an interim replacement for the remainder of the term. In 1978, Dianne Feinstein assumed the office following the assassination of George Moscone and was later selected by the Board to finish the term. In 2011, Edwin M. Lee was selected by the Board to finish the term of Gavin Newsom , who resigned to take office as Lieutenant Governor of California . [ 132 ]

Because of its unique city-county status, local government exercises jurisdiction over property that would otherwise be located outside of its corporation limit. San Francisco International Airport , though located in San Mateo County , is owned and operated by the City and County of San Francisco. San Francisco also has a county jail complex located in San Mateo County, in an unincorporated area adjacent to San Bruno . San Francisco was also granted a perpetual leasehold over the Hetch Hetchy Valley and watershed in Yosemite National Park by the Raker Act in 1913. [ 12 ]

The municipal budget for fiscal year 2007–2008 was just over $6 billion. [ 133 ]

San Francisco serves as the regional hub for many arms of the federal bureaucracy, including the US Court of Appeals , the Federal Reserve Bank , and the US Mint . Until decommissioning in the early 1990s, the city had major military installations at the Presidio , Treasure Island , and Hunters Point —a legacy still reflected in the annual celebration of Fleet Week . The State of California uses San Francisco as the home of the state supreme court and other state agencies. Foreign governments maintain more than seventy consulates in San Francisco. [ 134 ]

Campaign ethics and bylaw enforcement is handled by the San Francisco Ethics Comission .

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Historical populations
???????? Pop.
1860 56,802
-
1870 149,473 163.1 %
1880 233,959 56.5 %
1890 298,997 27.8 %
1900 342,782 14.6 %
1910 416,912 21.6 %
1920 506,676 21.5 %
1930 634,394 25.2 %
1940 634,536 0%
1950 775,357 22.2 %
1960 740,316 ?4.5 %
1970 715,674 ?3.3 %
1980 678,974 ?5.1 %
1990 723,959 6.6 %
2000 776,733 7.3 %
2010 805,235 3.7 %
Sources: [ 15 ]
See also: Population Graph

[ edit ] Census data

The 2010 United States Census [ 135 ] reported that San Francisco had a population of 805,235. The population density was 3,472.5 people per square mile (1,340.7/km²). The racial makeup of San Francisco was 390,387 (48.5%) White , 48,870 (6.1%) African American , 4,024 (0.5%) Native American , 267,915 (33.3%) Asian , 3,359 (0.4%) Pacific Islander , 53,021 (6.6%) from other races , and 37,659 (4.7%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 121,774 persons (15.1%).

The Census reported that 780,971 people (97.0% of the population) lived in households, 18,902 (2.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 5,362 (0.7%) were institutionalized.

There were 345,811 households, out of which 63,577 (18.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 109,437 (31.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 28,844 (8.3%) had a female householder with no husband present, 12,748 (3.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 21,677 (6.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships , and 10,384 (3.0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships . 133,366 households (38.6%) were made up of individuals and 34,234 (9.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26. There were 151,029 families (43.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.11.

The population was spread out with 107,524 people (13.4%) under the age of 18, 77,664 people (9.6%) aged 18 to 24, 301,802 people (37.5%) aged 25 to 44, 208,403 people (25.9%) aged 45 to 64, and 109,842 people (13.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.5 years. For every 100 females there were 102.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.8 males.

There were 376,942 housing units at an average density of 1,625.5 per square mile (627.6/km²), of which 123,646 (35.8%) were owner-occupied, and 222,165 (64.2%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.3%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.4%. 327,985 people (40.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 452,986 people (56.3%) lived in rental housing units.

[ edit ] Other data

Separately, the California Department of Finance estimated the population at 856,095, as of January 1, 2010. [ 136 ] With over 17,000 people per square mile, San Francisco is the second-most densely populated major American city (among cities greater than 200,000 population). [ 14 ] San Francisco is the traditional focal point of the San Francisco Bay Area and forms part of the San Francisco-Oakland- Fremont Metropolitan Statistical Area and the greater San Jose -San Francisco- Oakland Combined Statistical Area (CSA) whose population is over seven million, making it the fifth largest in the United States as of the 2000 Census. [ 137 ]

Like many larger US cities, San Francisco is a minority-majority city, as non-Hispanic whites comprise less than half of the population. According to the 2010 Census, Asians of any nationality make up 33.3% of the population with those of Chinese ethnicity constituting the largest single ethnic group in San Francisco at 21.4% of the population; the other Asian groups are Filipinos (4.5%), Vietnamese (1.6%), Japanese (1.3%), Asian Indians (1.2%), Koreans (1.2%), Thais (0.3%), Burmese (0.2%), Cambodians (0.2%), and both Indonesians and Laotians make up less than 0.1% of the city's population. [ 9 ] The Pacific Islander population is 0.4%, with about half of them being of Samoan descent. Hispanics of any race make up 15.0% of the population, mainly people of Mexican (7.4%), Salvadoran (2.0%), and other Central American descent (2.2%). San Francisco's African American population has declined in recent decades, from 13.4% in 1970 to 7.3%. [ 138 ] The current percentage of African Americans in San Francisco is similar to that of the state of California; [ 138 ] conversely, the city's percentage of Hispanic residents is less than half of that of the state. Native Californians form a relatively small percentage of the city's population: only 37.7% of its residents were born in California, while 25.2% were born in a different US state. More than a third of city residents (35.6%) were born outside the United States. [ 138 ]

According to the 2005 American Community Survey, San Francisco has the highest percentage of gay and lesbian individuals of any of the 50 largest US cities, at 15.4%. [ 139 ] San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other metropolitan area . [ 140 ]

Of all major cities, San Francisco ranks second behind Seattle for the percentage of residents with a college degree. Over 44% of adults within the city limits have a bachelor's or higher degree. [ 141 ] USA Today reported that Rob Pitingolo, a researcher who measured college graduates per square mile, found that San Francisco had the highest rate at 7,031 per square mile, or over 344,000 total graduates in the city's 46.7 square miles (121 km 2 ). [ 142 ]

San Francisco ranks third of American cities in median household income [ 143 ] with a 2007 value of $65,519. [ 138 ] Median family income is $81,136, [ 138 ] and San Francisco ranks 8th of major cities worldwide in the number of billionaires known to be living within city limits. [ 144 ] Following a national trend, an emigration of middle class families is contributing to widening income disparity [ 87 ] and has left the city with a lower proportion of children, 14.5%, than any other large American city. [ 145 ]

The city's poverty rate is 11.8% and the number of families in poverty stands at 7.4%, both lower than the national average. [ 146 ] The unemployment rate stands at 9.5% as of January 2011. [ 147 ] Homelessness has been a chronic and controversial problem for San Francisco since the early 1980s. The city is believed to have the highest number of homeless inhabitants per capita of any major US city. [ 148 ] [ 149 ] Rates of reported violent and property crimes for 2009 (736 and 4,262 incidents per 100,000 residents, respectively) [ 150 ] are slightly lower than for similarly sized US cities. [ 151 ]

Demographic profile [ 152 ] 2010 2000 1990 1980
One race 93.5% 95.7%
????? 48.5% 49.7% 53.6% 59.2%
????????? 33.3% 30.8% 28.7% 22.0%
Black or African American 6.1% 7,8% 10.9% 12.7%
American Indian and Alaska Native 0,2% 0,4% 0,5% 0,5%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0,4% 0,5% 0,5%
Some other race 6.6% 6,5% 5,8% 5.6%
Two or more races 4,7% 4,0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 15,0% 14.1% 13.3% 12.4%
White alone 41.9% 43.6% 46.0% 50.6%

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The Mission Bay campus of UCSF

The University of California, San Francisco is the sole campus of the University of California system entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. It is ranked among the top-five medical schools in the United States [ 153 ] and operates the UCSF Medical Center , which ranks among the top 10 hospitals in the country. [ 154 ] UCSF is a major local employer, second in size only to the city and county government. [ 155 ] [ 156 ] [ 157 ] A 43-acre (170,000 m 2 ) Mission Bay campus was opened in 2003, complementing its original facility in Parnassus Heights . It contains research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and life sciences entrepreneurship and will double the size of UCSF's research enterprise. [ 158 ] All in all, UCSF operates 20 facilities across San Francisco. [ 159 ] The University of California, Hastings College of the Law , founded in Civic Center in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution. [ 160 ]

San Francisco State University is part of the California State University system and is located near Lake Merced . [ 161 ] The school has close to 30,000 students [ 162 ] and awards undergraduate and master's degrees in more than 100 disciplines. [ 161 ] The City College of San Francisco , with its main facility in the Ingleside district, is one of the largest two-year community colleges in the country. It has an enrollment of about 100,000 students and offers an extensive continuing education program. [ 163 ]

Founded in 1855, the University of San Francisco , a private Jesuit university located on Lone Mountain , is the oldest institution of higher education in San Francisco and one of the oldest universities established west of the Mississippi River. [ 164 ] Golden Gate University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university formed in 1901 and located in the Financial District . It is primarily a post-graduate institution focused on professional training in law and business, with smaller undergraduate programs linked to its graduate and professional schools.

With an enrollment of 13,000 students, Academy of Art University is the largest institute of art and design in the nation. [ 165 ] Founded in 1871, the San Francisco Art Institute is the oldest art school west of the Mississippi. [ 166 ] The San Francisco Conservatory of Music , the only independent music school on the West Coast, grants degrees in orchestral instruments, chamber music, composition, and conducting. The California Culinary Academy , associated with the Le Cordon Bleu program, offers programs in the culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, and hospitality and restaurant management.

[ edit ] Primary and secondary schools

Public schools are run by the San Francisco Unified School District as well as the State Board of Education for some charter schools. Lowell High School , the oldest public high school in the US west of the Mississippi, [ 167 ] and the smaller School of the Arts High School are two of San Francisco's magnet schools at the secondary level. Just under 30% of the city's school-age population attends one of San Francisco's more than 100 private or parochial schools , compared to a 10% rate nationwide. [ 168 ] Nearly 40 of those schools are Catholic schools managed by the Archdiocese of San Francisco . [ 169 ]

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[ edit ] Roads and highways

California Street is one of the longest streets in San Francisco.
The Bay Bridge connects downtown San Francisco via Yerba Buena Island with Oakland and the East Bay .
This file is a candidate for speedy deletion . It may be deleted after Monday, 29 August 2011.

Because of its unique geography—making beltways somewhat impractical—and the results of the freeway revolts of the late 1950s, [ 170 ] San Francisco is one of the few American cities that has opted for European-style arterial thoroughfares instead of a large network of freeways. This trend continued following the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake , when city leaders decided to demolish the Embarcadero Freeway , and voters approved demolition of a portion of the Central Freeway , converting them into street-level boulevards. [ 170 ]

Interstate 80 begins at the approach to the Bay Bridge and is the only direct automobile link to the East Bay. US 101 extends Interstate 80 to the south along the San Francisco Bay toward Silicon Valley . Northbound, 101 uses arterial streets Van Ness Avenue and Lombard Street to the Golden Gate Bridge , the only direct road access from San Francisco to Marin County and points north. Highway 1 also enters San Francisco at the Golden Gate Bridge, but diverts away from 101, bisecting the west side of the city as the 19th Avenue arterial thoroughfare, and joining with Interstate 280 at the city's southern border. Interstate 280 continues this route along the central portion of the Peninsula south to San Jose . Northbound, 280 turns north and east and terminates in the South of Market area. State Route 35 , which traverses the majority of the Peninsula along the ridge of the Santa Cruz Mountains , enters the city from the south as Skyline Boulevard , following city streets until it terminates at its intersection with Highway 1. State Route 82 enters San Francisco from the south as Mission Street , following the path of the historic El Camino Real and terminating shortly thereafter at its junction with 280. The cross-country Lincoln Highway 's western terminus is in Lincoln Park . Major east–west thoroughfares include Geary Boulevard , the Lincoln Way / Fell Street corridor, and Market Street / Portola Drive .

Cycling is a popular mode of transportation in San Francisco, with about 40,000 residents commuting to work regularly by bicycle. [ 171 ]

Pedestrian traffic is a major mode of transport. In 2011, Walk Score ranked San Francisco the second most walkable city in the United States. [ 172 ] [ 173 ]

[ edit ] Public transportation

A cable car descending Nob Hill

A third of commuters in San Francisco used public transportation in 2005. [ 174 ] Public transit solely within the city of San Francisco is provided predominantly by the San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The city-owned system operates both a combined light rail and subway system (the Muni Metro ) and a bus network that includes trolleybuses , standard diesel motorcoaches and diesel hybrid buses. The Metro streetcars run on surface streets in outlying neighborhoods but underground in the downtown area. [ 175 ] Additionally, Muni runs the highly visible F Market historic streetcar line , which runs on surface streets from Castro Street to Fisherman's Wharf (through Market Street), [ 175 ] and the iconic San Francisco cable car system , [ 175 ] which has been designated as a National Historic Landmark . [ 176 ]

Commuter rail is provided by two complementary agencies. Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) is a regional rapid transit system that connects the San Francisco peninsula with the East Bay through the Transbay Tube . The line runs under Market Street to Civic Center where it turns south to the Mission District, the southern part of the city, and through northern San Mateo County , to the San Francisco International Airport , and Millbrae . [ 175 ] The Caltrain rail system runs from San Francisco along the Peninsula down to San Jose . [ 175 ] The line dates from 1863, and for many years was operated by Southern Pacific.

The Transbay Terminal serves as the terminus for long-range bus service (such as Greyhound ) and as a hub for regional bus systems AC Transit ( Alameda & Contra Costa counties), SamTrans ( San Mateo County ), and Golden Gate Transit (Marin and Sonoma Counties ). [ 177 ] Amtrak also runs a shuttle bus from San Francisco to its rail station in Emeryville . [ 178 ]

A small fleet of commuter and tourist ferries operate from the Ferry Building and Pier 39 to points in Marin County , Oakland , and north to Vallejo in Solano County . [ 175 ]

There is also commuter bus and special train service to the 49ers and Giant's games from Tri Delta Transit , Caltrain and other private operators as well.

[ edit ] Airports

San Francisco International Airport (SFO), though located 13 miles (21 km) south of the city in San Mateo County , is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. SFO is primarily near the cities of Millbrae and San Bruno , but also borders the most southern part of the city of South San Francisco . SFO is a hub for United Airlines , its largest tenant, [ 179 ] and the decision by Virgin America to base its operations out of SFO [ 180 ] reversed the trend of low-cost carriers opting to bypass SFO for Oakland and San Jose . SFO is an international gateway, with the largest international terminal in North America. [ 181 ] The airport is built on a landfill extension into the San Francisco Bay . During the economic boom of the late 1990s, when traffic saturation led to frequent delays, it became difficult to respond to calls to relieve the pressure by constructing an additional runway as that would have required additional landfill. Such calls subsided in the early 2000s as traffic declined, and, in 2006, SFO was the 14th busiest airport in the US and 26th busiest in the world, handling 33.5 million passengers. [ 182 ]

[ edit ] Seaports

The Ferry Building along the Embarcadero

The Port of San Francisco was once the largest and busiest seaport on the West Coast. It featured rows of piers perpendicular to the shore, where cargo from the moored ships was handled by cranes and manual labor and transported to nearby warehouses. The port handled cargo to and from trans-Pacific and Atlantic destinations, and was the West Coast center of the lumber trade . The 1934 West Coast Longshore Strike , an important episode in the history of the American labor movement , brought most ports to a standstill. The advent of container shipping made pier-based ports obsolete, and most commercial berths moved to the Port of Oakland and Port of Richmond . A few active berths specializing in break bulk cargo remain alongside the Islais Creek Channel.

Many piers remained derelict for years until the demolition of the Embarcadero Freeway reopened the downtown waterfront, allowing for redevelopment. The centerpiece of the port, the Ferry Building , while still receiving commuter ferry traffic, has been restored and redeveloped as a gourmet marketplace. The port's other activities now focus on developing waterside assets to support recreation and tourism.

[ edit ] Cycling

Cycling is a growing mode of transportation in San Francisco. Annual bicycle counts conducted by the Municipal Transportation Agency (MTA) in 2010 showed the number of cyclists at 33 locations had increased 58% from the 2006 baseline counts. [ 183 ] The MTA estimates that about 128,000 trips are made by bicycle each day in the city, or 6% of total trips. [ 184 ] Improvements in cycling infrastructure in recent years, including additional bike lanes and parking racks, has made cycling in San Francisco safer and more convenient. Since 2006, San Francisco has received a Bicycle Friendly Community status of "Gold" from the League of American Bicyclists .

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  32. ^ Construction of the Pacific Railroad was partially (albeit reluctantly) funded by the City and County of San Francisco Pacific Railroad Bond issue under the provisions of "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto." approved on April 22, 1863, as amended by §5 of the "Compromise Act of 1864" approved on April 4, 1864. The bond issue was objected to by the Mayor and the Board of Supervisors, however, and they were not delivered to the WPRR and CPRR until 1865 after Writs of Mandamus ordering such were issued by the Supreme Court of the State of California in 1864 ( "The People of the State of California on the relation of the Central Pacific Railroad Company vs. Henry P. Coon, Mayor; Henry M. Hale, Auditor; and Joseph S. Paxson, Treasurer, of the City and County of San Francisco" 25 Cal 635) and 1865 ( "The People ex rel The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California vs.The Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco, and Wilhelm Lowey, Clerk" 27 Cal 655)
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  58. ^ Also known as Dry-Summer Subtropical ( Köppen climate classification Csb )
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[ ????????????? ] ??????? ??????

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