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????

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?????: Justitia ???????    (?????????? ??? ????)
???????????? ?????????, ????? ????????, ? ??????????? ?????? ? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? .
??????????: 38 ° 53'42 .4 "N 77 ° 02'12 .0" W / 38,895111 ° ?.?. 77,03667 ° W / 38,895111; -77,03667 ?????????? : 38 ° 53'42 .4 "N 77 ° 02'12 .0" W / 38.895111 ° N 77,03667 ° W / 38,895111; -77,03667
?????? ??????????? ?????
??????????? ????? ????? ????????
???????????? 16 ???? 1790
?????????????? 1801
????????????????? 1871
??????? ???????????? ?????????????? 1973
????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????????
?????????????
- ??? ??????? ?. ????? ( D )
- ??????????? ?????? ????? ?. ????? (D), ????????????
???????
- ??????????? ????? 68,3 ?????????? ???? ( 177,0 ?? 2)
- ????? 61,4 ?????????? ???? (159,0 ?? 2)
- ???? 6,9 ?????????? ???? (18,0 ?? 2)
?????? 0-409 ????? (0-125 ?)
????????? (2010) [1] [2]
- ??????????? ????? 601 723 ( 24-? ????? ??? )
- ????????? 9,800.0 / ?? ???? (3,784.4 / ?? 2)
- ????? 5580000 ( ??????? ? ??? )
- Demonym Washingtonian
??????? ???? EST ( GMT -5 )
- ???? ( DST ) EDT ( UTC-4 )
???????? ?????? (?) 20001-20098, 20201-20599
?????????? ??? (?) 202
???-???? www.dc.gov

?????????, ????? ???????? ( ?????? / ? ? ? ? ? ? ?n ? ? ? ? ? ? ? / ), ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????, "?????", ??? ?????? ????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? , ?????????? 16 ???? 1790 ????. ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ?????, ?????????????, ?? ?????? ??????-???? ????? ??? , ? ?????? ????, ????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? .

? ??????, ????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ? 1791 ???? ? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? . ? 1871 ???? ????? ?????????, ??????????, ? ?????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????, ???????????????? ?????????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????????, ????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????. ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??????.

?????????, ????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???-????? ? ???????? , ????? ?????? ???????. ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? 601723, ??-?? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????. ??????? ?????????? ??????????? , ?? ??????? ????? ???????, ????? ????????? ????? 5,6 ???. ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????.

?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????, ??? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????. ?????????, ????? ???????? ?????? 176 ??????????? ????????? , ? ????? ????-???????? ?????????? ????? , ?????????????? ????????? ????? (???), ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? (???), ???????????????? ????? ???????? , ? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? (???) . ????-????????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ??????, ? ???????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????.

????? ??????????? ????? ? 13 ?????? ?????????? ?????? . ??? ?? ?????, ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????????, ??? ?????? ?????. ????? ??? ????? ??????, ?? ??????? ????????? ???????????? , ?? ?? ????????. DC ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ? 1961 ????.

??????????

???????

???????????? -????????? ?????, ????????? ??? Nacotchtank ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???? , ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? 17 ????; [3] ??? ?? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ? ?????? 18 ????. [4] ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ? 1751 ????. ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? 40 ??? ??????. [5] ????? ???????????, ???? ????????? , ?????????? ? 1749 ???? ????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????. [6]

? ????? " ???????????? ? 43 ", ?????????????? 23 ?????? 1788, ?????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????????, ????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????????. [7] ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ??????????? , ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????, ????? ????????? ????????????. ????????? ??? ????? ???????????? 1783 ???? , ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????, ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????-???? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????????????. [8]

?????? ??????, ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? "?????? (?? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????), ? ?????, ??????? ??? ???? ??????????, ? ????? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ". [9] ??????????? ?? ????, ??????, ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???????. ? ??, ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? 1790 ???? , ???????, ????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???????????, ??? ???????, ??? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????? . []

????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ????? ????????, ? ????? 1812 ???? .

16 ???? 1790 ?. ???????? ?????? ????? Residence , ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? , ?????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? . [?] ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? 10 ???? (16 ??) ? ?????? ???????, ?? ????? ????? 100 ?????????? ???? (260 ?? 2), ??????????? ?? ?????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????. ? 1791-92, ????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? Banneker , ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???????. [10]

????? "????? ???????????? ????????" ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????, ? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????. 9 ???????? 1791 ????, ??????????? ????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? , ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ? ????????????? ? ?? ?????. [11] [12] ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? 17 ?????? 1800 ????. [13]

?????? ????? ???????? ? ????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????? 1801 , ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ???????, ??????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????, ? ? ???????????, ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????. ????? ????, ??????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ? ???? ??????: ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????? . ?? ????? [14] ????? ???????? ????? ??????, ???????, ????????????? ? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????, ???????, ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????????????? ? ????????? . [15]

Ford ? ????? ? 19 ????, ???? 1865 ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????

24-25 ??????? 1814 ???? ? ???? ?????, ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? , ?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ????? ????? 1812 ???? , ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ????? (???? ??????? ). ????????? , ???????????? , ? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????????. [16] ??????????? ????????????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????????????, ?? ?????????, ??????? ??? ? ?? ????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????????, ?? ??? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ???? ?? 1868 ????. [ 17]

? 1800 ???? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????. ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? . [18] ? 1830-? ?????, ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????????? ????, ???????? ??-?? ????????????? ??????????. [18] ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????. [19] ? 1840 ????, ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????. ??????????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ? ??????? 1846 ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ? 9 ???? 1846 ???? ???????? ?????????? ? ???, ????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????. [18]

??????????? ?????? ???-??????? ?????????????, ?????????? 1850 ??? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????, ???? ? ?? ???? ???????. [20] ? 1860 ???? ????? 80% ????-???????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????? . ??????? ??????????? ????? ? ??? ? 1861 ???? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????. [21] ? 1862 ???? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? , ??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????? 3100 ???????????? ?????, ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????? . [22] ? 1870 ???? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? 132000. [23] ???????? ?? ???? ??????, ????????? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????????;. ???????? ???? ????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? [24]

????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? 1963 ???? ?? ?????????

? ???????? ???????????? ????? 1871 ???? , ???????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ??????. [25] ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????, ? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ????? ???????? [26] [?] ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????. [25] ? 1873 ???? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????, ????????? ???? ??????? , ????? ????? ????????? ???????????. ? ??? ?? ????, ?????? ???????? 20 ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????? (357 ???. ????. ??? ? 2007), [27], ??????? ??????????????? ???????, ?? ? ??????????? ??????. ? 1874 ?. ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????. [24] ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????, ???? ???? ?????????? ? 1901 ????. [28]

????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? 1930 ????, ????? ????????? ???????? ?. ???????? »? ????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????. ?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????; [29] . ? 1950 ????, ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ? 802 178 ??????? [30] ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ? 1961 ????, ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ????-??????????, ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????.

????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????-???????? , 4 ?????? 1968 ????, ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????, ? ?????? ??????? ? U Street , 14-? ????? , 7-? ????? , ? H Street ?????????, ??????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????? ????????. ?????????? ??????? ??? ???, ???? ????? 13000 ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????. ????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????; ?????????????? ?? ???? ??????, ???? ????? 1990 ????. [31]

? 1973 ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? , ????????????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????. [32] ? 1975 ???? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????. [33]

?? 11 ???????? 2001 , ?????????? ?????? American Airlines ????? 77 ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ???? ????????? . United Airlines ????? 93 , ??? ????????, ??????????????? ??? ??????????, ???????? ? ????? ???????????? , ????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????. [34] [35]

?????????

??????? ? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ??????.

????? ????? ????? ??????? 68,3 ?????????? ???? (177 ?? 2), ?? ??????? 61,4 ?????????? ???? (159 ?? 2) ????? ? 6,9 ?????????? ???? (18 ?? 2) (10,16%) ???????? ????. [36] ????? ??? ?? 100 ?????????? ???? (260 ?? 2) ??-?? ??????????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? 1846 ????. ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????. ?????????, ?????????????, ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???-??????, ??????-??????? ? ??????-?????? ? ????????? ?? ???-?????. ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????: ???? ??????? ? ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ? ???-???? . [37] ???? ???? , ???????, ??? ?????-?? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???? , ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? 1870-? ??. [38]

??????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????. [39] ???? ?????-???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ? ?????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????. [40] ??????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????, ????????????? ? ???? ???? ???? ? Tenleytown ??????, ?? 409 ????? (125 ?) ??? ??????? ????. [41] ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???????. ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? 4 ? L ????? ??. [42]

????????????? ??? ??????????? ????? 23% ????? ? ??????. ? ???????, ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????? 29% ????? ? ?????? ?????. [43] ???????? 19,4% ?? ??????????, ????? ????????, ???????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ???-???? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???. [44] ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? 35%. [45] ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????????, ????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ???-????-???? , ??????? ? ????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ???? , ???????????? ???? , ?????? ??????? ????????? , ??????????? ???? , ????????-????-???? , ? ????????? ????? . [46] ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? , ??????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??? . [47] Great Falls ???? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????? (??????-?????) ? ??????????. ? 19-? ????, ??????? ? ????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ? ???????????, ??? ???????????, ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????. [48]

??????

??????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????.

????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ( ?????? : CFA)., ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? [49] ?????? ??????? ????????-?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????????. ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???? 8? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ???? 7b ? ?????? ?????? ??????, ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????. [50] ????? ? ????? ??????, ? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? 14,7 ????? (37 ??). ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????? 38 ° F (3,3 ° ?) ? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????. [51] ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????-????? ???. ???????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? " nor'easters ", ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????, ????????? ?????, ? ?????? ????. ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???. [52]

???? ?????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? 79,2 ° F (26,2 ° ?) ? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????? 66%, ??? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????. [51] [53], ????????? ????? ? ????????? ? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???? ??????. [54] ???? ??????? (??? ?? ???????) ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????? ? ????? ???? ? ?????? ?????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ??-?? ?????????? ????? ??????. ?????????? ???? ???????, ??????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ????? , ? ?????, ??? ????????, ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????????. [55]

??????? ?????????????????? ??????????? 106 ° F (41 ° C) 20 ???? 1930 ????, ? 6 ??????? 1918 ????, ? ????? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???? -15 ° F (-26 ° C) 11 ??????? 1899 ????, ?? ????? ??????? Blizzard, ? 1899 ???? . [52] ?? ??? ??????? ?????? 37 ???? ???????, ??? 90 ° F (32,2 ° ?) ? 64 ????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????????. [51]

????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ????? ???????? ( Reagan National )
????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???
??????? ??????? ° F (° C) 42,5
(5.83)
46,5
(8.06)
55,7
(13.17)
66,3
(19.06)
75,4
(24.11)
83,9
(28.83)
88,3
(31.28)
86,3
(30.17)
79,3
(26.28)
68,0
(20)
57,3
(14.06)
47,0
(8.33)
66,4
(19.11)
??????? ?????? ° F (° C) 27,3
(-2.6)
29,7
(-1.3)
37,3
(2.94)
45,9
(7.72)
55,8
(13.22)
65,0
(18.33)
70,1
(21.17)
68,6
(20.33)
61,8
(16.56)
49,6
(9.78)
40,0
(4.44)
32,0
(0)
48,6
(9.22)
?????? ?????? (??) 3,21
(81.5)
2,63
(66.8)
3,60
(91.4)
2,77
(70.4)
3,82
(97)
3,13
(79.5)
3,66
(93)
3,44
(87.4)
3,79
(96.3)
3,22
(81.8)
3,03
(77)
3,05
(77.5)
39,35
(999.5)
???????? ?????? (??) 5,9
(15)
5,1
(13)
1,6
(4.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0,7
(1.8)
1,4
(3.6)
14,7
(37.3)
??. ??????? ???? (? 0,01 ?) 10,5 9,3 10,6 9,6 11,2 10,2 10,4 8,6 8,1 7,8 8,5 9,5 114,3
??. ??????? ???? (? 0,1 ?) 3,1 2,2 1,1 0,1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,5 1,1 8,1
????????? ???? 145,7 152,6 204,6 228,0 260,4 282,0 279,0 263,5 225,0 204,6 150,0 133,3 2,528.7
????????: NOAA (1971-2000) [51] , HKO (?????? ??????, 1961-1990) [56]


Cityscape

L'Enfant's ???? ??????????, ????? ????????, ??????????????? ????? ???????? (1792)

?????????, ????? ????????, ???????? ?????????????? ????? . ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???? (????) ?????? L'Enfant , ???????????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????, ? ??????????????, ??????? ?????????? ? ????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ? ???????-??????? Lafayette ?? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? . ? 1791 ???? ????????? ????????? ??????? L'Enfant ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???????. [28] ?? ??????? L'Enfant's, ????? ?????????? ??? ???????, ????? ????? ???????, ??? ????????? , ????? , ????????? , ???????? ? ?????? , ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? 1788 ????. [57] ???? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????????????, ?????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????????. [28] L'Enfant's ?????? ????? ????????????? ??? ????????? "??????? ???????? "???????? ? 1 ???? (1,6 ??) ? ????? ? 400 ????? (120 ?) ? ?????? ? ???????, ??????? ? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???? . [58]

? ????? 1792 ????, ????????? ????????? ???????? L'Enfant ??-?? ??? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????. ???????? ????? , ??????? ??????? ? L'Enfant ?????? ?????, ????? ??????? ????????? ?????. ???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????, ? ??? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ?????, L'Enfant ??-???????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????. [59] ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???, ??? ? ????????? ????? ???? ???????-????? ? ??????, Rock ???? ?? ??????, ? ????????? ???? ?? ??????. [28]

? ?????? 20-?? ????, L'Enfant's ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????, ? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????. [28] ? 1900 ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? , ?? ????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????? , ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????. ??? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ????????? ? 1901 ????. ??? ???????? ? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????, ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????, ??????? ??????, ? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????-????? ??????, ? ?? ??????, ??? ?????????, ? ???????? ? ???????????? ? L'Enfant's ???????????? ??????. [28]

?????????, ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????? .

????? ????????????? ??????????-???????? ?????? ???? ????? ? 1894 ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? , ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????. ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ? 1910 ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? 20 ????? (6,1 ?). [60] ???????? ?? ???????????????? ??????, ?? ???? ?????, ?????-???? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? . [61] [62] ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????, ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ????????? "????????????? ?????" ? "?????? ? ???????" ?????? ?? "?????? ? ?????????" ????. [60] ? ?????????? , ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????. [63] ??? ?? ?????, ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????, ?????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ????????, ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? . [60] ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ? ???????, ???? ????????? . [64]

????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????: ??????-????? (NW) , ??????-?????? (NE) , ???-?????? (SE) , ? ???-????? (SW) . ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???. [65] ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ? ?????? ?????, ????????????? ?? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????. ? ??????????? ?? ??????, ?????, ?????????? ? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????, ?????, ????????? ? ??????? (????????, C Street SW) ? ? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ? ???????? (????????, 4-? Street NW). [65] ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????, ????? ??? ????????????-????? , ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ? ??????????, ? ???-????? , ? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????? ????????????. [66] ????????? ?????? 176 ??????????? ????????? , 59 ?? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????-????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? . [67]

???????????

????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? " ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? "? 2007 ????.

??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????. ????? ?? 10 ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? '2007 ???????? " ??????? ??????????? ??????? "????????? ? ?????? ????????: [68] ????? ??? , ????????? ???????????? ????? , ????? ?????????? ???????? ; ??? ????????? ; ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? . ??????????????? , ?????????? , ?????????? , ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????, ??? ???? ???????? ? ???? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????. ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??????? , ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? . [69]

?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????, ????????????? ?????, ??? ????? ????????????. ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ???????? ???? , Châteauesque , Richardsonian ?????????? , ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? , ? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????. ?????????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????????. [70] ? ??????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????. ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ? 1765 ????, ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????. [71] ??????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????, ??????, ?? ???? ????????? ?? 1870-? ????? ? ???????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????. ?????????? ? 1789 ????, ??????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? . [69] ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ????? 3,1 ???????? ?????????? ????? (288000 ? 2). [72]

??????????

???????????? ?????????
???????? ????????? % ±
1800 8144
-
1810 15471 90,0%
1820 23336 50,8%
1830 30261 29,7%
1840 33745 11,5%
1850 51687 53,2%
1860 75080 45,3%
1870 131700 75,4%
1880 177624 34,9%
1890 230392 29,7%
1900 278718 21,0%
1910 331069 18,8%
1920 437571 32,2%
1930 486869 11,3%
1940 663091 36,2%
1950 802178 21,0%
1960 763956 -4,8%
1970 756510 -1,0%
1980 638333 -15,6%
1990 606900 -4,9%
2000 572059 -5,7%
2010 601723 5,2%
????????: [1] , ??????????: [D]

2010 ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ????? ? ?????????? 601 657 ???????, [1] ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????? ? ???????? 2000 ???? , ??????? ????????????? 572 059 ???????. [73] ?? ????? ??????? ??????, ??????, ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? 70%, ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????. [74] ??????? ?????????? ??????????? , ??????? ???????? ? ???? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ???????? 5,6 ???. ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? 2010 ????. [2] ????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ? ??? ????????????, ????????-????????? Metropolitan Area ???? ?????????? ????? 8500 ????? ??????? ? 2010 ????, ????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????. [75] ???? ?????? ???? ???????????, ???? ?? ???? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????. [76]

?? ?????? ???????? 2010 ????, ????????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ????? ????????, ???????? 50,7% ??????????????? , 38,5% ????? , 3,5% ????????? ? 0,3% ???????????? ???????? . ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? 4,1% ????????? ??????, ? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???????? 2,9%. ????? ????, ???????????????? ????? ???? ?????????? 9,1% ????????? ??????. [77] ???? ????? ??????? 74000 ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ? ??????????, ????? ????????, ? 2007 ????. [78] ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????????? , ???????, ? ??????? , ? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ????? ??????? ??????. [79]

? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ????-??????????? , ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????. ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????????????? . ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? 1% ?? ????? ?? 10% ? 1810 ????. [80] ? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? 30% ????????? ????? 1800 ? 1940 ??. [30]

?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ? 70% ??????? ?????? ? 1970 ????. ? ??? ???, ??????, ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??-?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????. [81] ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ????-?? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????. [82] ? ?? ?? ?????, ????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ??-?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ? 11,5%-??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ? 31,4%-??? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ? 2000 ????. [81] ??????, ????????? ????-??????????, ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????, ????????? ? ?????????, ????? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? . [82]

?? ???????? 2000 ???? ????????, ???, ?? ??????? 33 000 ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ? ?????, ??????????? ??? ????????????, ????? 8,1% ????????? ????????? ??????. [83] ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ???? ????????????, ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ????? ? ??????? 2009 ????. ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ??? ? ????? 2010 ????. [84]

?????? ? 2007 ???? ??????????, ??? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? , ?? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????. ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????. [85] ???????????? 2005 ???? ??????????, ??? 85,16% ?? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ???? ???? ? 8,78% ??????? ??-????????. ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?? 1,35%. [86] ? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ????? 46% ??????? ?????? ????????, ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????. [87] ????? 23% ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ???????? ?? 18 ??? ? 2009 ????. [88] ?? ?????? 2008 ????, ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ????????????: 28% ??????? ???????? ???????? , 13% ??????-???????????? , ? 31% ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????. ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? 6% ????????? ? 18% ?? ?????????????? ???????. [89]

????????????

?? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? 1990-?, ?????????, ????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ???????. [90], ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ? 1991 ???? ?? 479, ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ? 1990 ????. ? 2009 ???? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?? 143, ?????????? ?????????? ? 1966 ????. [91] ? ????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ? ???????? ? ??? ???? ? 1993 ????. [92] ????? 60 ????? ??????? ????? ????????? , ????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ???????????. [93]

??? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????. 2010 ???????????? ????????, ??? 5% ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????. [94] ????? ??????? ??????? ??????-????????? ??????????, ??? ???????, ?????????, ?? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ? ????????? ????? ??????. [94] ?????? ??????, ????? ??? ????????-????? ? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????. ??? ?? ?????, ?????? ???????? ? ???? ???????? ???? ? ???? ???????? ??-?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????. [95] ???? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????, ?????? ??-???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? 1990-? ?????, ? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????. [96]

26 ???? 2008 ???? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? , ??? 1976 ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????. [97] ??? ?? ?????, ????????????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ????????; ??????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????, ??? ?? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????. [98]

?????????

???????, ???? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????.
????????? ????? ???????? ? 1873 ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????.

????????? ??????, ??????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????. [99] ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? 2010 ???? ???????? $ 103 300 000 000, ??????? ????? ??? ???? ? 34 ?? ????????? ? 50 ?????? ???. [100 ] ? 2008 ???? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? 27% ??????? ???? ? ??????????, ????? ???????? [101] ?????????, ??? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????, ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ????????. [102] ??????, ?? ????????? ?? ?????? 2007 ????, ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???? 14% ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ???. [103] ?????? ???????????, ????? ??? ??????????? ????? , ??????????? ?????????? (??? ??????????????, ??? ? ???????????), ?????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ????, ??????????, ?????????????? ???????? ????? , ? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????-???????? ? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????????. [66]

?? ????????? ?? ???? 2011 ????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ? 6,2%, ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? 49 ?????????? ???????? ????? . ? ?????? [104] ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ? 9,8% ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???????. [105]

????? ????????? ????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????, ???????? ? ?????? ???????????, ????????, ??????????????? ????????, ? ??????? ????????????. ?????????????? ???????????? , ???????????? ??????? ?????????? , ????????? ???????? ????? , ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????, ?? -????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ? 2009 ????. [106] ???? ???? Fortune 1000 ????????, ????????????? ? ??????????, ??? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? Fortune 500 ????????. [107]

????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? 2009 ????, ???????? ??? ?????? ? ???-?????, ?? ??????????? ?????? 200 ?????????? ?????????? ????????-?????????????. [108] ? 2006 ???? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????. [109] ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???? ??? ?? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ? Forbes ?????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ????? ? ??????. [110]

???????? ????? ?????? ???? ? ??????????, ????? ????????, ? ?????????, ? ???????????? Logan Circle, ??? , ????????-?????, ??????? U-????? ? 14-? ???????-?????. [111] ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ????? 1990-? ????? ????????????? Green Line ?? Metrorail , ????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ?? ? ?????? ??????. [112] ? ????? 2008 ???? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????-????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? 40 ???. [113] ??? ?? ?????? ???????, ???????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????, ?? ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????, ? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????. [111] ? 2006 ????, ????? ????????, ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ?? $ 55 755, ????, ??? ????? ?? 50 ?????? ???. [114] ??????, 19% ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ? 2005 ????, ????, ??? ??????-???? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ????????? , ? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????. [115]

????????

???????????? ????? ? ?????

???????????? ???? ???????? ???????, ???????? ???????? ????? ? ?????? ??????. ???????? ??? ???????????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? . ????????????? ? ?????? Mall ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????? . ????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ????????? , ???????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? , ????????? ????? ???????? ????????? , ? ????????? ????????? ????????. [116] ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ?????????? ? ????????????? , ??????????? ??? ? ????? ? ?????? . [117]

????? ?????????? ????? ? ??? ?? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????. ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? , ???????? ??????? ??????? , ???????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????. [118]

????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ? 1846 ????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ??????. [119] ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ? 2009 ???? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????. [120] ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????: ???????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????????? ; ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ; ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??????? , ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ; ??????? ? ???? ???????, ??????? ??? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????; ????? ????????? ? ??? ????????? , ????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ; ?. ??????? ????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? (????? ????????? ??? "?????"), ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ????-???????? ???????????. [121]

????????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? (????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????) ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????, Donald W. ?????????? ?????? , ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??. [122] ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? . [123] ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ????? ?????. ?????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????: ????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???-????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????? ????? ????? Union Station , ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????? ???? .

????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ?????????.

???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?? National Mall ????? ?????????, ?? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ????, ????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???, ????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????. ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????? 19 ????. [124] ??????? ?????????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ?. ?. ??? , ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????. [125] ?????????? ????????? , ????????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???? ? ?????????? ????? 147 ????????? ????, ????????? ? ?????? ??????????. [126] ????????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? , ? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????, ?????????????????? ? ???????. [127]

???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????, ? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????, ????? ???: ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????? , ??????? ???????? ???????? , ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????, ? ??????? ????????? ? Dupont Circle , ?????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???. [128] ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? Newseum , Museum International Spy , National Geographic Society ????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? . ????????? ? ???, ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????????? . [129]

??????????????? ????????? ? ??????

???? ?. ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????.

?????????, ????? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ??????? ????????. ???? ?. ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? , ????????????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????? . ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???, ??? ? ??????????????? ???? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ????? ???. [130] ?????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ??? ???????????? ????? , ????? Warner , ? DAR ??????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????. ???????????? ????? ????? , ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? , ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????, ? ????? ?????. [131]

??????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? , ?????????? ? 1798 ????, ?? ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????. [132] ????????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? Marine Band ? 1880 ?? 1892 ????. [133 ] ?????????? ? 1925 ????, ??? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ????-???????? ? ?????????? ???? ????? ? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????. [134]

????????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ?????????? ? 1950 ????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????. [135] ? 2010 ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????????????? ??? ? ???-????? , ????? ????????, ??????? ???? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????. [136 ] ????? ???????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ???? , ? ????? ?????-?????? ? ???????? ????? ?? 14th Street NW, ??????????? ???????????? ? ????? ???????????? ????. ???? ??????????????????? ??????, ? ????????? ????? ????????? ? ???????????? Tivoli ?????? ? ????????-????? , ???? ???????? ? 1976 ???? ? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? Latino. [137]

??????? U Street ? ??????-???????? DC, ????????? ??? "?????? ??????? ??????????", ???????? ????? ??? ????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????? , ??? ????????? ?????? ??????, ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? , ???? ???????? ? ????? ????? . [138] ?????? ????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ????? ??? ???????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ? ???????????. DC ????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? Go-Go , ????-????, ??????-???????? ???? R & B, ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????. ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? , ??????? ?????? ???-??? ?? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??? 1979 LP Bustin ». [139]

????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????-???????? ? ?????? ? ???. ???????? Dischord Records , ???????????? ??? ?????? , ??? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? 1980-? ???? ? ? ???????? ????? ????-??? ? 1990-?. [140] ?????????? ????-?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ???? TeenBeat , Simple Machines , ? ESL ?????? ????? ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ? ????-??????????? ?????????, ??? Black Cat ? 9:30 ???? ????? U Street ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????. [141]

???????? ???????? ??????????

?????? Washington ??? ?? ????????????-????? ? 1874 ????

?????????, ????? ????????, ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????. ????????? ???? , ?????????? ? 1877 ????, ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????. [142] ???, ????????, ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ? ????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? . [143] "?????????", ??? ??? ? ?????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? 2008 ????. [144] USA Today , ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ????? ????-???????? ? ???????? ??????, ???? ????????? . [145]

???????? Washington Post ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? , ? ??????? ?????? ???????, ????? ? ???????????, ? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? El Tiempo Latino. ??????? ?????????? ?????? The Washington Times ? The Washington ???????? , ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?????? , ? ??????????? ?????????? Business Journal ????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????, ? ?????. [146] [147] ??? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ? ??? ?????: ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? , ??????? ?????????? ?? ????-????????; ????????? Informer ? ????????? ???? ???????????? , ??????? ???????? ????, ?????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ????? . Congressional Quarterly , ???? , ???????????? ? Roll Call ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?? ???????, ????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????. ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? National Geographic ? ???????????? ????????, ????? ??? The New Republic ? Washington Monthly .

??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????-????? ? ??? ??? ???????? ????? (????? 2% ????????? ???). [148] ????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????-???????? ? ???? ??????, ? ??? ?????: C- SPAN ; ?????? ????????????? ??????????? (BET), National Geographic Channel , ????????????? ????? ; National Public Radio (NPR), Travel Channel (? ???? ????, ???? ???????? ), Discovery Communications (? ??????-??????, ???? ???????? ), ? ????? ????????????? ??????? ( PBS) (? ??????????, ???? ????????? ). ????-???????? ????? ??????? , ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???, ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ???-?????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? Radio One , ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????, ?????????? ?????-?????? ???? ???? . [149]

??????????

?????????, ????? ????????, ???????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????. ????????? ??????? ( ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ), ????????? ( ???????????? ????????? ???? ), ? ????????? ??????? ( ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ), ?????? ?? Verizon Center ? ????????? ????????. ???????? ????? , ??????? ???????? ? ???-DC ? 2008 ????, ???????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ( ??? ). ?? ?? ??????? ( Major League Soccer ) ?????? ?? ???????? ??? . Washington Redskins ( ???????????? ?????????? ???? ) ?????? ? ???????? FedExField ? Landover, ???? ???????? .

?????? ???????????????? ? ????-???????????????? ?????? ? ??????????, ???????? ? ????: ????????? Kastles ( ????????? TeamTennis ); ?????????? Slayers ( ???????????? ???????????? ???? ????? ); ???????? ????????? ???? ( USAFL ); DC Divas ( ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ), ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???? RFC ( Rugby ????????? ). ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ? ???-????-???? ?????? ?????? Legg Mason ???????????? . ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????: ??????? ?????? ??????? , ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????, ? -?-???? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? 1976 ????, ??? ?????? ???????? "??????? ????????", ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????????. [150]

?????? ?????? NCAA Division I ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????. ????????? ??????????????? Hoyas ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????????????, ? ????? ?????? ?? Verizon Center. ? 2008 ???? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? Bowl . [151]

????????? ???????? ????? ?? 13 ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? : ?????? , ?????????, ???????, ? ?????? ? ??????. ????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????, ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????????????? ?????. ??????? ??????? DC ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????: Washington Redskins ??????? ????, [152] ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? (?????? ????? ? ??????? MLS); [153] ? ????????? ??????? (? ?? ????? ????????? ????) ??????? ?????? ??????????. [154] ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? Comcast SportsNet (CSN), ???????????? ? Bethesda, ???? ???????? .

?????????????

???? ?. ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ????????.

?????? ??????, ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????????, ????? ????????, ????? ????????, ?? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?????? 1973 ? ?????????????? . ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????? , ? ????????? ????? ??????? ?. ????? , ? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? . ?????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ? ??????? ????. [155]

?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ??????, ??????? ????????????, ?????????? ? ?????. [156] ???? 37 ??????????????? ???????? ????????? (ANCs) ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????. ANCs ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????. [157]

???? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????. ??????? ??????? , ?????? , ? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ????? 67% ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????. ??? 50 ??????, ????? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? , ?? ??????? ?????????? ????? 26% ?? ?????? ?????? ??????. [158]

DC ??????? ? ????????????? ?????, ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????. ????????, ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????? ????? 60% ??????? ???? ??????. ????? ????, ????? 50% ???????????? ? ??????, ????????????? ?? ???????????????. [159] ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???-?? ????? $ 470 ???. ? ????? $ 1 ???? ? ???. [159] [160] [161] ? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????, ????? ??? Medicaid . ????? ????, ??????????? ????? 1997 ???? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????????. [160] [162] ??? ?? ?????, ????????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????. [160] [161]

????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? , ????? ??????????? ???????????. ??????? ???? ??????, ???? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?? ??????? ?????? ? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? , ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????. [163] ? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? , ?????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? , ???????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? , ???????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????? ??????, ? ?????. [164] ??? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? . [165] ??? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????. [166]

???????? ?????????????? ??????, ???????? ? ????? ?????? ????? , ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????????? ? ???????????????. [167] ????? ??? ?????? ????? ? 1978 ????, ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????. ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ? 1989 ????, Washington Monthly ?????? ?????????, ??? ????? ??? "?????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????". [168] ? 1995 ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????. [169] ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ? 1998 ????. ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????, ????????????? ??????? , ? ???????? ???????. [159] ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ? 2001 ???? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????????????. [170]

?????????, ????? ????????, ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? . ????? ????? ????????? ???? ???????????? 16 ??????, ? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? 1862 ????. [22]

??????????? ????????????????? ? ???????????????

???????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????.

???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????. ??? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? , ? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? (D- DC At-Large ), ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? , ??????????? ? ???????, ? ?????? ???????????????? ???, ?? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ?????. DC ?? ????? ?????? ????????????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????? . ? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? , ????? ??? ??????-???? ? ???? , ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????. [171] ? 2007 ?????????? ????, ????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? $ 20,4 ????. ? ??????????? ???????; ????? ???????, ????????? ?? 19 ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? . [172]

2005 ????? ???????, ??? 78% ??????????? ?? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????? ????????, ????? ?????? ????????????????? ? ?????????, ??? ?????? 50 ??????. [173] ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ???????????, ? ????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????, " ??????????????? ??? ????????????????? ", ?? DC ??????? ?????????? ???????? . [174] ?????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?? DC ????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ?? 61 ?? 82% ??????????? ???????, ??? DC ?????? ????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ????????. [173] [175] ???????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????, ? ??? ????? ???????? DC ????????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? , ?? ?????????? ???????.

?????????? DC ????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ????-?????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????????. ??, ??? ??????, ????? ??????? DC ????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ??????. [176]

???????????

????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? (???) ???????? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?? 129 ???? ? ??????? ???????. [177], ?????????? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? 39 ??? ?? 2010 ????. [178] ? 2009-10 ????? ???, 45 772 ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ????. [177] ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????, ??? ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????. [179] ????????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ????, ??????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ????, ? ? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????. [180]

??-?? ??????? ? DC ??????? ??????????????? ????, ????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?? 13% ?????? ???, ??????? ? 2001 ????. [181] ????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? 52 ???????????? ????????? ???? ? ??????. ?? ????????? ?? ????? 2010, DC ????????? ???? ????????????? ? ????? ????????? ????????? ????? 28 ?????. [182] ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????. ? 2006 ???? ????? 18 ????? ?????????, ??????????? ? 83 ????????? ??????? ??????. [183]

??????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? (??), ????????????? ???????????? ??????? (CUA), Gallaudet ???????????? , ???????????? ??????? ?????????? (GW), ??????????????? ???????????? (??), ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? (SAIS) . ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????. ??????????? ?????? ???????? (???) ???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????.

????????

16 ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. [184] ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? Bethesda, ???? ????????. ????????? Hospital Center (???), ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??????, ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????. ??????????????? ????? ? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? . ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????? & World Report . [185] ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????, ? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ???? ??????????? ???????. Walter Reed Army ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????-???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ? ?? ??????????.

2009 ??? ???????, ??? ?? ??????? ???? 3% ??????? ?????? ? ??? ??? ??????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? (CDC) ????????????? ??? «?????????? ? ???????" ????????. ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???? ? DC, ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????. [186]

?????????

Metro Center ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? , ????????? ? ????? Metrorail ?????.

??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ???????. ? 2007 ???? ????????? ????????? ??????? 60 ????? ? ??? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?? ??, ??? ?????? ???????? ? ??????, ????? ???-?????????. [187] ??? ?? ?????, 37,7% ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????, ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????. [188]

???????? ???? ????, ?????????, ? ???????????? ???? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? . ??-?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ????????? 1960-? ?????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ????????. Interstate 95 , ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? . ???????, ??????? ???? ????????????? ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ??????????????. [189] ??????????????? ????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ? ??? ????? 66 ?????????????????? ? ??????????????????? 395 , ??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????? ? ?????.

????????? Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) ???????? ????????????? ????? , ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ? ????? Metrobus . ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? Colubmia ? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????. Metrorail ?????? 27 ????? 1976 ???? ? ? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? 86 ??????? ? 106,3 ???? (171,1 ??) ????. [190] ? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? 2009 ????, Metrorail ? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ????? ???-???????? ????? ???? . [191]

???? ????????? ? incrased ????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? , [192] [193] , ? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????. [194] DC ????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????. [195] Metrorail, Metrobus ? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? SmarTrip , ??????????? ???????? ?????????. [196]

Union Station ???????? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????????????, ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ??????????.

Union Station ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????, ????? ????????, ? ???????????? ????? 70 ????? ??????? ?????? ????. ??? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?? ????????????? ??????? ? 4,6 ???. ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????-????????? ? Acela ???????? ?????????. ???????? MARC ? ????????? VRE ??????????? ??????? ? Metrorail ??????? ????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ? Union Station. [197] ????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? Greyhound , ????? ??? , BoltBus , Megabus , ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? .

?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????, SmartBike DC , ? 2008 ????. [198] ? ???????? 2010 ???? ????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ???? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????? Bikeshare ???????, ??????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ? 1100 ??????????? ? 110 ???????. [199] ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ?? 38 ???? (61 ??) ???? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????. [200]

??? ??????? ?????????, ???? ? ????? ???????? ? ??? ? ?????????, ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? , ????????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????????, ??????? ????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ??Metrorail. ? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ??????, Reagan National ????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ???? ??? , [201] , ? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????. [202] ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?? Washington Dulles International Airport , ????????????? 26,3 ???? (42,3 ??) ? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????. ????????-????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? 31,7 ???? (51,0 ??) ??????-??????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? Anne Arundel, ???? ???????? .

?????? ??????

?????????, ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????. [203] ????? "??????? ????" ??-?? ????? ???????-?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? . [204]

????? ?????? ???
??????? ??????? ??????? 1962 ????, ??????????? 2002
????? ??????? ??????? 1980 ????, ??????????? 2006
????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? 1984 ????, ??????????? 2004
???????? ??????? ??????? 1985 ????, ??????????? 2002
????? ?????? ?????? 2000
????? ??????? ??????? 2000 ????, ????? 2005
???????? ??? ??? 2002 ????, ????? 2008
???? ????? ????? ????? ????? 2006
????? ???? ???? 2006
?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? 2006

??. ?????


??????????

^ [] ? 1790 ????, ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ?????????????. ???????? ????? ?? ????, ? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????????? ????????????. ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ?????, ? ???? ???????, ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ? ?? ??????????? ???????????????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????. ??.:. ??????, ????? ?., ?????? ???????? ????, ???? ???????? (1892) Centennial ??????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ???????? . ???????, ???? ????? : United ?????? ????????????. ???. 124. http://books.google.com/?id=5Q81AAAAIAAJ .  
^ [?] Residence ????? ???????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ????? ? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????. ??? ?? ?????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???-??????? ? ????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????. ? 1791 ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ? ????? Residence ????????? ????? ????, ? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ??.:. ??????, ????? ?., ?????? ???????? ????, ???? ???????? (1892) Centennial ??????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ???????? . ???????, ???? ????? : United ?????? ????????????. ???. 89-92. http://books.google.com/?id=5Q81AAAAIAAJ .  
^ [?] ???????? "????? ??????????" ?????????? ??????????????, ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ? 1895 ????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??? ?????, ????? ??? ??????????????? ???, ??? ? ??????????. ??.: "????? ????????? ????? ??????????, ? ?????? ????????, ? ??? ?????? ?????" (PDF) ??? ????? ? ?????.. ???. 679. http://www.constitution.org/uslaw/sal/028_statutes_at_large.pdf . ????????? 10 ???? 2011.  
^[d] Data provided by "District of Columbia – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1800 to 1990" (PDF). United States Census Bureau . September 13, 2002 . http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056/tab23.pdf . ????????? 29 ???? 2008 ????.   Until 1890, the US Census Bureau counted the City of Washington, Georgetown, and unincorporated portions of Washington County as three separate areas. The data provided in this article from before 1890 are calculated as if the District of Columbia were a single municipality as it is today. Population data for each specific area prior to 1890 are available. See: Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990" . United States Census Bureau . http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/twps0027.html . ????????? 29 ???? 2008 ????.  

??????

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